Featured Article| Volume 19, ISSUE 3, 104524, March 2023

Cardiac Sarcoidosis: Diagnosis and Management

Published:February 02, 2023DOI:


      • Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is a rare but fatal inflammatory disease.
      • Methotrexate is an effective steroid-sparing agent appropriate for the long-term treatment of CS.
      • Patients who do not respond or cannot tolerate corticosteroids or methotrexate are treated with infliximab.
      • Adalimumab is tumor necrosis factor alfa inhibitor that is safe in heart failure patients.


      Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology that continues to challenge clinicians in its diagnosis and treatment. Although uncommon, cardiac involvement is fatal and is the second most prevalent cause of death in sarcoidosis patients globally. This article outlines the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of cardiac sarcoidosis to guide nurse practitioners.


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      Mohamed Toufic El Hussein, PhD, NP, is a professor at the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health, Community & Education Mount Royal University and Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Medical Cardiology, Coronary Care Unit, Rockyview General Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and can be contacted at [email protected]


      Nada Al-Wadeiah is a third-year nursing student at Mount Royal University, Calgary, Alberta, CA.


      Nancy Clark, MN, NP, is the NP Manager - Cardiac Sciences and acute care nurse practitioner, medical cardiology, Coronary Care Unit, Rockyview General Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, CA.