Advertisement

Advanced Practice Nurse in South Korea and Current Issues

Published:November 21, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2022.10.015

      Highlights

      • Advanced practice nurses (APNs) in Korea began as special-field nurses in the 1970s.
      • Master’s degree education and certification of APN followed in the early 2000s.
      • The number of certified APNs has increased; yet, APN use continues to be low.
      • The lack of clarity regarding the scope of practice and reimbursement is problematic.
      • To maximize APN use in Korea, government efforts are required.

      Abstract

      In South Korea, advanced practice nursing was introduced in the 1970s to facilitate access to health care. Private hospitals began to employ nurses in advanced roles in the 1990s, and legislation governing advanced practice nurse (APN) education and certification followed in the early 2000s. As of September 2022, there were 16,888 certified APNs. However, there are several impediments to their use, including a lack of clarity regarding the scope of practice and the absence of a medical fee schedule. The resolution of such issues calls for the government to take an active role in establishing a reimbursement system and developing APN staffing regulations.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The Journal for Nurse Practitioners
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Seol M.
        • Shin Y.A.
        • Lim K.C.
        • Leem C.
        • Choi J.H.
        • Jeong J.S.
        Current status and vitalizing strategies of advanced practice nurses in Korea.
        Perspect Nurs Sci. 2017; 14: 37-44https://doi.org/10.16952/pns.2017.14.1.37
        • Lee B.S.
        • Han Y.R.
        • Yang S.J.
        Historical review of modern public health nursing.
        J Agric Med Community Health. 2018; 43: 114-124https://doi.org/10.5393/JAMCH.2018.43.2.114
        • Korea Ministry of Government Legislation
        Medical Service Act.
        • Korean Law Information Center
        Rule of the Advanced Practice Nurses’ Qualification.
        (April 2022)
        • Leslie K.
        • Moore J.
        • Robertson C.
        • et al.
        Regulating health professional scopes of practice: comparing institutional arrangements and approaches in the US, Canada, Australia and the UK.
        Hum Resour Health. 2021; 19: 15https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-020-00550-3
        • Frogner B.K.
        • Fraher E.P.
        • Spetz J.
        • et al.
        Modernizing scope-of-practice regulations—time to prioritize patients.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 591-593https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1911077
        • Korean Nurses Association
        A study on the status and survey of Korean advanced practice nurses.
        • Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing Education
        Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing Education News.
        Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing Education, 2021
        • Minister of Health Welfare
        Health and Welfare Statistical Year Book 2020.
        Korean Ministry of Health Welfare, 2021
        • Kim M.Y.
        • Choi S.J.
        • Jeon M.K.
        • Kim J.H.
        • Kim H.Y.
        • Leem C.S.
        Study on systematization of advanced practice nursing in Korea.
        J Korean Clin Nurs Res. 2020; 26: 240-253https://doi.org/10.22650/JKCNR.2020.26.2.240
        • Schober M.
        Global emergence of nurse practitioner/advanced practice nursing roles.
        J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2018; 30: 182-184https://doi.org/10.1097/JXX.0000000000000029
        • Wheeler K.J.
        • Miller M.
        • Pulcini J.
        • Gray D.
        • Ladd E.
        • Rayens M.K.
        Advanced practice nursing roles, regulation, education, and practice: a global study.
        Ann Glob Health. 2022; 88: 42https://doi.org/10.5334/aogh.3698
      1. Maie CB, Aiken LH, Busse R. Nurses in advanced roles in primary care: policy levers for implementation. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 98; Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Publishing. https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/a8756593-en

        • Kim M.
        • Kim I.
        • Lee Y.
        A study on legal coherence of legislations related to nursing services: focusing on registered nurse, midwife, advanced practice nurse and nurse assistant.
        Health Social Welfare Rev. 2018; 38: 420-457https://doi.org/10.15709/hswr.2018.38.3.420
        • Markowitz S.
        • Adams E.K.
        • Lewitt M.J.
        • Dunlop A.L.
        Competitive effects of scope of practice restrictions: public health or public harm?.
        J Health Econ. 2017; 55: 201-218https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealec0.2017.07.004
        • Traczynski J.
        • Udalova V.
        Nurse practitioner independence, health care utilization, and health outcomes.
        J Health Econ. 2018; 58: 90-109https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealec0.2018.01.001
        • Xue Y.
        • Kannan V.
        • Greener E.
        • et al.
        Full scope-of-practice regulation is associated with higher supply of nurse practitioners in rural and primary care health professional shortage counties.
        J Nurs Regul. 2018; 8: 5-13https://doi.org/10.1016/S2155-8256(17)30176-X
        • Leem C.S.
        • Choi S.J.
        • Lim K.C.
        • et al.
        Common scope of practice for advanced practice nurses in Korea derived from expert agreement.
        J Korean Crit Care Nurs. 2019; 12: 35-49https://doi.org/10.34250/jkccn.2019.12.3.35
        • Joo H.J.
        • Jang B.N.
        • Joo J.H.
        • Park E.C.
        • Jang S.I.
        Unmet healthcare needs status and trend of south Korea in 2020.
        HPM. 2022; 30: 237-243https://doi.org/10.4332/KJHPA.2022.32.2.237
        • Kim S.
        • Lee T.W.
        • Kim G.S.
        • et al.
        Nurses in advanced roles as a strategy for equitable access to healthcare in the WHO Western Pacific region: a mixed methods study.
        Hum Resour Health. 2021; 19: 19https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-021-00555-6
        • Ko C.
        Public’s perception on reimbursement for advanced practice nurses’ education and counseling in intensive care units by the national health insurance.
        J Korean Crit Care Nurs. 2018; 11: 95-107
        • Oh Y.
        Establishment of healthcare delivery system though improvement of health insurance system.
        Health Policy and Management. 2019; 29: 248-261https://doi.org/10.4332/KJHPA.2019.29.3.248
        • Kim D.
        • Lee M.H.
        Improvement of infection control system in long-term care facilities after the coronavirus disease outbreak.
        Korean J Occup Health Nurs. 2020; 29: 202-207https://doi.org/10.5807/kjohn.2020.29.3.202
        • World Health Organization
        Global health workforce shortage to reach 12.9 million in coming decades.
        (November 11)
        • Aiken L.H.
        • Sloane D.M.
        • Brom H.M.
        • et al.
        Value of nurse practitioner inpatient hospital staffing.
        Med Care. 2021; 59: 857-863https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000001628
        • Kim M.Y.
        • Jeon M.K.
        • Choi S.J.
        • Kim J.H.
        • Kim H.
        • Leem C.S.
        Experience of healthcare providers in the advanced practice nurse system.
        J Korean Crit Care Nurs. 2021; 14: 42-56https://doi.org/10.34250/jkccn.2021.14.2.42
        • Fealy G.M.
        • Casey M.
        • O’Leary D.F.
        • et al.
        Developing and sustaining specialist and advanced practice roles in nursing and midwifery: a discourse on enablers and barriers.
        J Clin Nurs. 2018; 27: 3797-3809

      Biography

      Su Jung Choi, PhD, APN, MSN, RN is a professor at the Graduate School of Clinical Nursing Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.

      Biography

      Yeon Hee Kim, PhD, MSN, RN is a professor at the Department of Clinical Nursing, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea, and can be contacted at [email protected] .

      Biography

      Kyung-Choon Lim, PhD, GNP, MSN, RN is a professor at School of Nursing, College of Nursing, Sungshin University, Seoul, South Korea.

      Biography

      Young-ah Kang, APN, MSN, RN, Department of Nursing, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.