By Faculty for Faculty|Articles in Press, 104408

Developing the Diabetes Workforce Through Education of Advanced Practice Nurses

Published:September 29, 2022DOI:


      • Advanced practice nurses completing the diabetes concentration reported high rates of preparedness to provide diabetes care.
      • Graduates reported strong level of skills and abilities related to diabetes care.
      • Immersive camp experiences were valuable to graduates' readiness to provide diabetes care.
      • Similar programs can be implemented within other schools of nursing to strengthen the clinical workforce.


      This report describes the diabetes concentration for advanced practice nurses at the University of California San Francisco School of Nursing, and presents outcome findings on graduates’ diabetes care preparedness, abilities, and clinical leadership. An online survey was developed and administered to 87 graduates. Participants reported high rates of preparedness postgraduation. High preparedness, years since graduating, camp involvement, and regular attendance of continuing education were significant predictors of diabetes-related care abilities. Regular attendance of diabetes-focused education, years since graduating, camp involvement, and nursing specialty were significant predictors of leadership involvement. Other nursing schools may consider implementing similar programming to address workforce shortages, especially in rural and underserved areas.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to The Journal for Nurse Practitioners
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Beck J.
        • Greenwood D.A.
        • Blanton L.
        • et al.
        2017 National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.
        Diabetes Educ. 2017; 43 (Published correction appears in Diabetes Educ. 2017;43(6):650): 449-464
        • Bodenheimer T.S.
        • Smith M.D.
        Primary care: proposed solutions to the physician shortage without training more physicians.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2013; 32: 1881-1886
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        National Diabetes Statistics Report.
        (Published February 11, 2020)
        • Naylor M.D.
        • Kurtzman E.T.
        The role of nurse practitioners in reinventing primary care.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2010; 29: 893-899
        • Nikitara M.
        • Constantinou C.S.
        • Andreou E.
        • Diomidous M.
        The role of nurses and the facilitators and barriers in diabetes care: a mixed methods systematic literature review.
        Behav Sci (Basel). 2019; 9: 61
        • Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing, at the Institute of Medicine
        The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health.
        National Academies Press (US), Washington (DC)2011
        • Swan M.
        • Ferguson S.
        • Chang A.
        • Larson E.
        • Smaldone A.
        Quality of primary care by advanced practice nurses: a systematic review.
        Int J Qual Health Care. 2015; 27: 396-404
        • Tsiachristas A.
        • Wallenburg I.
        • Bond C.M.
        • et al.
        Costs and effects of new professional roles: evidence from a literature review.
        Health Policy. 2015; 119: 1176-1187
        • Lutfiyya M.N.
        • Tomai L.
        • Frogner B.
        • Cerra F.
        • Zismer D.
        • Parente S.
        Does primary care diabetes management provided to Medicare patients differ between primary care physicians and nurse practitioners?.
        J Adv Nurs. 2017; 73: 240-252
        • Yang Y.
        • Long Q.
        • Jackson S.L.
        • et al.
        Nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and physicians are comparable in managing the first five years of diabetes.
        Am J Med. 2018; 131: 276-283.e2
        • Kuo Y.F.
        • Goodwin J.S.
        • Chen N.W.
        • Lwin K.K.
        • Baillargeon J.
        • Raji M.A.
        Diabetes mellitus care provided by nurse practitioners vs primary care physicians.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015; 63: 1980-1988
        • Everett C.M.
        • Morgan P.
        • Smith V.A.
        • et al.
        Primary care provider type: are there differences in patients' intermediate diabetes outcomes?.
        JAAPA. 2019; 32: 36-42
        • Kolb D.A.
        Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. 1. Prentice Hall, 1984
      1. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2019.
        Diabetes Care. 2019; 42: S1-S183
        • American Association of Diabetes Educators
        Competencies for Diabetes Educators and Diabetes Paraprofessionals.
        • Trend Diabetes
        An Integrated Career and Competency Framework for Diabetes Nursing.
        (5th ed. Published March)


      Maureen McGrath, MS, PNP, is a professor at the School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, and can be contacted at [email protected]


      Kevin Khamarko, MA, PMP, is a research consultant at Data Clever Consulting, San Francisco, CA.


      Carolina Noya, PhD, FNP, is an associate professor at the School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco.