Atypical Eating Disinhibition Genotype

Published:February 22, 2018DOI:


      • Eating disinhibition is associated with weight gain and poor weight maintenance.
      • The taste receptor type 2 member 38 gene is associated with increased eating disinhibition.
      • The atypical eating disinhibition genotype was more frequent in obese patients.
      • Earlier genetic genotype screening may help assess risk for obesity.
      • Earlier obesity intervention promotes optimal health outcomes.


      This study identified the frequency of 6 eating behavior genotypes in overweight (body mass index 25-29.9kg/m2) versus obese (body mass index ≥ 30kg/m2) patients. Using a quantitative retrospective design, participant characteristics and genotypes of 6 genes and their associated eating behavior traits were extracted from 698 electronic medical records of patients from 3 medical weight loss clinics. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Obese patients (n = 582) in this sample were significantly more likely to have the atypical eating disinhibition genotype versus overweight patients (n = 116) (P < .001). Nurse practitioners working with obese patients should consider genetic testing as part of obesity prevention.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic and Personal


      Subscribe to The Journal for Nurse Practitioners
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Burke W.
        • Tarini B.
        • Press N.A.
        • Evans J.P.
        Genetic screening.
        Epidemiol Rev. 2011; 33: 148-164
        • Chen S.
        • Parmigiani G.
        Meta-analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 penetrance.
        J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 1329-1333
        • Goldman J.S.
        Genetic testing and counseling in the diagnosis and management of young-onset dementias.
        Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2015; 38: 295-308
        • Stein S.A.
        • Maloney K.L.
        • Pollin T.I.
        Genetic counseling for diabetes mellitus.
        Curr Genet Med Rep. 2014; 2: 56-67
        • O'Rahilly S.
        • Farooqi I.S.
        Human obesity: a heritable neurobehavioral disorder that is highly sensitive to environmental conditions.
        Diabetes. 2008; 57: 2905-2910
        • Herrera B.M.
        • Keildson S.
        • Lindgren C.M.
        Genetics and epigenetics of obesity.
        Maturitas. 2011; 69: 41-49
      1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult obesity causes and consequences. 2017. Accessed October 26, 2017.

      2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The health effects of overweight and obesity 2015. Accessed March 11, 2017.

        • Ochner C.N.
        • Tsai A.G.
        • Kushner R.F.
        • Wadden T.A.
        Treating obesity seriously: when recommendations for lifestyle change confront biological adaptations.
        Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015; 3: 232-234
        • Ayala G.X.
        • D'Angelo H.
        • Gittelsohn J.
        • et al.
        Who is behind the stocking of energy-dense foods and beverages in small stores? The importance of food and beverage distributors.
        Public Health Nutr. 2017; 18: 1-10
        • Pearce M.
        • Bray I.
        • Horswell M.
        Weight gain in mid-childhood and its relationship with the fast food environment.
        J Public Health (Oxf). 2017 Sep 10; ([Epub ahead of print])
        • Bryan A.D.
        • Jakicic J.M.
        • Hunter C.M.
        • Evans M.E.
        • Yanovski S.Z.
        • Epstein L.H.
        Behavioral and psychological phenotyping of physical activity and sedentary behavior: implications for weight management.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017; 25: 1653-1659
        • Lepp A.
        • Barkley J.E.
        • Sanders G.J.
        • Rebold M.
        • Gates P.
        The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of U.S. college students.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013; 10: 79
        • Whittemore R.
        • Melkus G.D.
        • Alexander N.
        • et al.
        Implementation of a lifestyle program in primary care by nurse practitioners.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2010; 22: 684-693
        • Peterson J.A.
        • Cheng A.L.
        Physical activity counseling intervention to promote weight loss in overweight rural women.
        J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2013; 25: 385-394
        • ter Bogt N.C.
        • Milder I.E.
        • Bemelmans W.J.
        • et al.
        Changes in lifestyle habits after counselling by nurse practitioners: 1-year results of the Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle study.
        Public Health Nutr. 2011; 14: 995-1000
        • Eny K.M.
        • Wolever T.M.
        • Fontaine-Bisson B.
        • El-Sohemy A.
        Genetic variant in the glucose transporter type 2 is associated with higher intakes of sugars in two distinct populations.
        Physiol Genomics. 2008; 33: 355-360
        • Epstein L.H.
        • Temple J.L.
        • Neaderhiser B.J.
        • Salis R.J.
        • Erbe R.W.
        • Leddy J.J.
        Food reinforcement, the dopamine D2 receptor genotype, and energy intake in obese and nonobese humans.
        Behav Neurosci. 2007; 121: 877-886
        • de Krom M.
        • van der Schouw Y.T.
        • Hendriks J.
        • et al.
        Common genetic variations in CCK, leptin, and leptin receptor genes are associated with specific human eating patterns.
        Diabetes. 2007; 56: 276-280
        • Bouchard L.
        • Drapeau V.
        • Provencher V.
        • et al.
        Neuromedin beta: a strong candidate gene linking eating behaviors and susceptibility to obesity.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 1478-1486
        • Hays N.P.
        • Roberts S.B.
        Aspects of eating behaviors “disinhibition” and “restraint” are related to weight gain and BMI in women.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008; 16: 52-58
        • Lindroos A.K.
        • Lissner L.
        • Mathiassen M.E.
        • et al.
        Dietary intake in relation to restrained eating, disinhibition, and hunger in obese and nonobese Swedish women.
        Obes Res. 1997; 5: 175-182
        • Elfhag K.
        • Rössner S.
        Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.
        Obes Rev. 2005; 6: 67-85
        • Dotson C.D.
        • Shaw H.L.
        • Mitchell B.D.
        • Munger S.D.
        • Steinle N.I.
        Variation in the gene TAS2R38 is associated with the eating behavior disinhibition in Old Order Amish women.
        Appetite. 2010; 54: 93-99
        • Choi S.W.
        • Claycombe K.J.
        • Martinez J.A.
        • Friso S.
        • Schalinske K.L.
        Nutritional epigenomics: a portal to disease prevention.
        Adv Nutr. 2013; 4: 530-532
        • Martinez J.A.
        • Milagro F.I.
        • Claycombe K.J.
        • Schalinske K.L.
        Epigenetics in adipose tissue, obesity, weight loss, and diabetes.
        Adv Nutr. 2014; 5: 71-81
        • Collins J.
        • Ryan L.
        • Truby H.
        A systematic review of the factors associated with interest in predictive genetic testing for obesity, type II diabetes and heart disease.
        J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014; 27: 479-488
        • Conradt M.
        • Dierk J.M.
        • Schlumberger P.
        • et al.
        A consultation with genetic information about obesity decreases self-blame about eating and leads to realistic weight loss goals in obese individuals.
        J Psychosom Res. 2009; 66: 287-295
        • Williamson D.A.
        • Lawson O.J.
        • Brooks E.R.
        • et al.
        Association of body mass with dietary restraint and disinhibition.
        Appetite. 1995; 25: 31-41
        • Peterson J.A.
        Get moving! Physical activity counseling in primary care.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2007; 19: 349-357
      3. US Preventative Services Task Force. Obesity in adults: screening and management 2012. Accessed April 22, 2017.


      Lori E. Arguello, DNP, ANP-BC, is medical provider at The Hernried Center Weight Loss Clinic in Sacramento, CA. She is available at [email protected].


      Kasuen Mauldin, PhD, RD, is associate professor with the department of nutrition, food science, and packaging at San José State University in San Jose, CA.


      Deepika Goyal, PhD, FNP-BC, is professor at The Valley Foundation School of Nursing, San José State University.