Incentives and Barriers to Precepting Nurse Practitioner Students


      • Four hundred fifty-three preceptors across multiple settings identified incentives and barriers to precepting.
      • Leading incentives to precept are credit toward recertification, program information, and remuneration.
      • Leading barriers identified by preceptors are time constraints and productivity demands.
      • Preceptors were influenced by professional obligation; learning opportunities as a preceptor; and a prior relationship with the faculty, school, or student.
      • Past studies have not identified remuneration as an incentive, reflecting a change in attitudes toward precepting as a volunteer role.


      This study investigated incentives and barriers to precepting nurse practitioner students. Four hundred fifty-three providers from multiple settings, self-identified as qualified to precept, responded to the Web-based survey. The 64-item survey developed by the authors assessed the degree of incentive on 40 items and the influence of 17 additional factors. The leading barriers were time factors and productivity demands. The most highly rated incentives were credit toward professional recertification, program information, access to clinical references, and remuneration. Influential factors depending on the site or circumstances were professional obligation, learning opportunities, and prior relationship with faculty or student. Recognition and gifts were the lowest rated incentive factors.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to The Journal for Nurse Practitioners
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Aiken L.H.
        • Cheung R.B.
        • Olds D.M.
        Education policy initiatives to address the nurse shortage in the United States.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2009; 28: 646
        • Bauer J.C.
        Nurse practitioners as an underutilized resource for health reform: evidence-based demonstrations of cost-effectiveness.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2010; 22: 228-231
        • Institute of Medicine
        The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health.
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2011
      1. Dower C, O'Neil E. Primary care health workforce in the United States. Synth Proj Res Synth Rep. 2011 Jul;(22). pii: 72579. doi: 72579. Epub 2011 Jul 1.

      2. Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education. CCNE-accredited master's nursing degree programs. 2014. Accessed July 7, 2015.

      3. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2013 Annual Report. 2013. Accessed July 7, 2015.

      4. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. New AACN data show an enrollment surge in baccalaureate and graduate programs amid calls for more highly educated nurses. 2012. Accessed July 7, 2015.

        • Buppert C.
        How many relative value units should an NP produce?.
        J Nurse Pract. 2013; 9: 470-472
        • Wiseman R.
        Survey of advanced practice student clinical preceptors.
        J Nurs Educ. 2013; 52: 253-258
        • Barker E.R.
        • Pittman O.
        Becoming a super preceptor: a practical guide to preceptorship in today's clinical climate.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2010; 22: 144-149
        • Campbell S.H.
        • Hawkins J.W.
        Preceptor rewards: how to say thank you for mentoring the next generation of nurse practitioners.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2007; 19: 24-29
        • DeWolfe J.A.
        • Perkin C.A.
        • Harrison M.B.
        • et al.
        Strategies to prepare and support preceptors and students for preceptorship: a systematic review.
        Nurse Educ. 2010; 35: 98-100
        • Gibson S.E.
        • Hauri C.
        The pleasure of your company: attitudes and opinions of preceptors toward nurse practitioner preceptees.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2000; 12: 360-363
        • Lyon D.
        • Peach J.
        Primary care providers' views of precepting nurse practitioner.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2007; 13: 237-240
        • Shannon S.J.
        • Walker-Jeffreys M.
        • Newbury J.W.
        • Cayetano T.
        • Brown K.
        • Petkov J.
        Rural clinician opinion on being a preceptor.
        Rural Remote Health. 2006; 6: 490
        • Wilson L.L.
        • Bodin M.B.
        • Hoffman J.
        • Vincent J.
        Supporting and retaining preceptors for NNP programs: results from a survey of NNP preceptors and program directors.
        J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2009; 23: 284-292
        • Brooks M.V.
        • Niederhauser V.P.
        Preceptor expectations and issues with nurse practitioner clinical rotations.
        J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2010; 22: 573-579
        • Burns H.K.
        • Northcutt T.
        Supporting preceptors: a three-pronged approach for success.
        J Contin Educ Nurs. 2009; 40: 509-513
        • Arbuckle J.
        Amos 17.0 user’s guide.
        ([computer program]) SPSS Incorporated, 2008
      5. American Nurses Credentialing Center. Certification renewal requirements. 2014. Accessed July 7, 2015.

      6. American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. Recertification frequently asked questions., 2015. 2015. Accessed July 7, 2015.

        • Giddens J.
        • Lauzon-Clabo L.
        • Morton P.
        • Jeffries P.
        • McQuade-Jones B.
        • Ryan S.
        Re-envisioning clinical education for nurse practitioner programs: themes from a national leaders’ dialogue.
        J Prof Nurs. 2014; 30: 273-278


      All authors are affiliated with MGH Institute of Health Professions in Boston, MA. Judith Webb, DNP, ANP-BC, is the coordinator of the adult gero primary care nurse practitioner track and a clinical assistant professor and can be reached at .


      Ruth Palan Lopez, PhD, GNP-BC, is an associate professor


      A.J. Guarino, PhD, is a professor.