Advertisement

Caffeine Intoxication and Addiction

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Holly Pohler, MSN, ARNP, CSPI, CPS, is ARNP, Poison Specialist at Florida Poison Control in Tampa.
    Holly Pohler
    Footnotes
    1 Holly Pohler, MSN, ARNP, CSPI, CPS, is ARNP, Poison Specialist at Florida Poison Control in Tampa.
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Holly Pohler, MSN, ARNP, CSPI, CPS, is ARNP, Poison Specialist at Florida Poison Control in Tampa.

      Abstract

      Caffeine, one of the world's most popular psychoactive substances, is sought for its central nervous system stimulant effects. If coffee, tea, and soda alone do not provide the desired stimulation, some consumers are turning to the newest fad in the caffeine market, energy drinks. These beverages are loaded with caffeine and sugar, infused with herbal additives, and marketed particularly to youth. Caffeine produces dose-dependent symptoms, and intoxication may develop with overconsumption. Caffeine is also recognized for its addictive properties, and discontinuation results in a withdrawal syndrome. Nurse practitioners are encouraged to consider caffeine intoxication, addiction, and withdrawal syndrome in the differential when patients complain of characteristic symptoms. Ongoing nutritional assessment and education on moderation are key to reducing the overuse of caffeinated energy drinks.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The Journal for Nurse Practitioners
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Reissig C
        • Strain E
        • Griffiths R
        Caffeinated energy drinks – a growing problem.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009; 99: 1-10
      1. Nutrition.
        (Accessed June 1, 2009.)
        • Hoffman R
        Methylxanthines and selective β2-adrenergic agonists.
        in: Goldfrank L Flomenbaum N Howland M Toxicologic emergencies. McGraw-Hill, New York2002
      2. Klasco RK (ed). POISINDEX® System. Greenwood Village, CO: Thomson Reuters, edition expires 6/2009.

      3. Caffeine Content of Common Beverages.
        (Accessed May 5, 2009.)
      4. Frequently Asked Questions.
        (Accessed June 1, 2009.)
      5. Rockstar Energy Drink.
        (Accessed May 5, 2009.)
      6. BAWLS Guarana.
        (Accessed May 5, 2009.)
      7. Rip It Energy Fuel Power Review.
        (Accessed May 5, 2009.)
      8. Caffeine Content of Guru Energy Drink.
        (Accessed June 1, 2009.)
      9. Caffeine Content of Cocaine Energy Drink (2005-2009).
        (Accessed May 5, 2009.)
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed, text revision. APA, Washington, DC2000: 221-225 (708-9.)
        • World Health Organization (WHO)
        The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders. World Health Organization, 1994/2006
      10. Caffeine Content of Arizona Extreme Energy Shot (2005-2009).
        (Accessed May 5, 2009.)